Sierra County Health Highlights: Hepatitis B, Acute and Chronic Infections per 100,000 Population
Hepatitis B, Acute and Chronic Infections
Sierra County Compared to State
*Description of Dashboard Gauge
Description of the Dashboard GaugeThis "dashboard" type graphic is based on the community data on the right. It compares the community value on this indicator to the state overall value.
The community value is considered statistically significantly different from the state value if the state value is outside the range of the community's 95% confidence interval. If the community's data or 95% confidence interval information is not available, a blank gauge image will be displayed with the message, "missing information."NOTE: The labels used on the gauge graphic are meant to describe the community's status in plain language. The placement of the gauge needle is based solely on the statistical difference between the community and state values. When selecting priority health issues to work on, a community should take into account additional factors such as how much improvement could be made, the U.S. value, the statistical stability of the community number, the severity of the health condition, and whether the difference is clinically significant.
Why Is This Important?Hepatitis B infection is a common cause of death associated with liver failure, cirrhosis and liver cancer. In New Mexico, approximately 5000 people are living with hepatitis B. Nationwide, hepatitis B infection is the cause of 2000-4000 deaths each year. Rates of new infection and acute disease are highest among adults, but chronic infection is more likely to occur in persons infected as infants or young children.(1)
How Are We Doing?Hepatitis B vaccination is very effective in preventing infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is one of the recommended childhood vaccinations and is required for school entry in New Mexico. However, new infections with HBV continue to be reported. Transmission most commonly occurs among injecting drug users through shared needles, and sexual and household contacts of someone infected with HBV. Mothers can transmit the virus to their children during birth. Newly infected adults are typically without symptoms. Although new infections are being reported in all age groups, the highest number of new cases is being reported in men between the ages of 25 and 49 years.
Evidence-based PracticesHepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection and its consequences. A primary focus of this strategy is universal vaccination of infants to prevent early childhood HBV infection and to eventually protect adolescents and adults from infection. Other components include routine screening of all pregnant women for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and postexposure immunoprophylaxis of infants born to HBsAg-positive women, vaccination of children and adolescents who were not previously vaccinated, and vaccination of unvaccinated adults at increased risk for infection.(1) A complete vaccination schedule may be found online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5416.pdf.
Healthy People 2010 Objective 14.2:Hepatitis B in infants and young children -Perinatal infections (number of cases, children aged under 2 years)
U.S. Target for 2010: 400
Health Care System Factors:
Hepatitis B, Acute and Chronic Infections per 100,000 Population by County, New Mexico, 2006-2009
DNA=Data not available.
Note** Data for Colfax, De Baca, Hidalgo, Lincoln, Mora, Quay, Torrance and Union counties were suppressed because the small number of cases in those counties produced statistically unstable results.
Data SourcesNew Mexico Data Source, 2006 and later: New Mexico Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NM-EDSS), Infectious Disease Epidemiology Bureau, New Mexico Department of Health.
Measure Description for Hepatitis B, Acute and Chronic Infections
Definition: The number of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections reported per 100,000 population
Numerator: The number of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections reported during the time period. For chronic hepatitis B, both probable and confirmed cases have been included in these case counts. For acute hepatitis B, only confimed cases have been included, as there are no probable, acute cases of hepatitis B according to the case definition.
Denominator: Total estimated population by year (or for combined years)
Click on this link to jump to the complete indicator profile report for Hepatitis B, Acute and Chronic Infections (exits this community report).
Date Indicator Content Last Updated: 12/14/2010