Health Highlight Report for Sierra County
Pertussis: Cases per 100,000 Population, 2013-2017
Sierra County3.5 95% Confidence Interval(0 - 8.4)Description of the Confidence IntervalThe confidence interval indicates the range of probable true values for the level of risk in the community.
A value of "DNA" (Data Not Available) will appear if the confidence interval was not published with the IBIS indicator data for this measure.
Statistical StabilityVery UnstableDescription of Statistical Stability
- Stable = This count or rate is relatively stable and should provide a good estimate of your community risk.
- Unstable = This count or rate is statistically unstable (RSE >0.30), and may fluctuate widely due to random variation (chance).
- Very Unstable = This count or rate is extremely unstable (RSE >0.50). This value should not be used to represent your population risk. You should combine years or otherwise increase the population denominator in this calculation.
- DNA = Data Not Available. The required community value and/or confidence interval was not available for this measure.
New Mexico15.1 U.S.5.8
Sierra County Compared to State
Description of Dashboard Gauge
Description of the Dashboard GaugeThis "dashboard" type graphic is based on the community data on the right. It compares the community value on this indicator to the state overall value.
The community value is considered statistically significantly different from the state value if the state value is outside the range of the community's 95% confidence interval. If the community's data or 95% confidence interval information is not available, a blank gauge image will be displayed with the message, "missing information."NOTE: The labels used on the gauge graphic are meant to describe the community's status in plain language. The placement of the gauge needle is based solely on the statistical difference between the community and state values. When selecting priority health issues to work on, a community should take into account additional factors such as how much improvement could be made, the U.S. value, the statistical stability of the community number, the severity of the health condition, and whether the difference is clinically significant.
- Excellent = The community's value on this indicator is BETTER than the state value, and the difference IS statistically significant.
- Watch = The community's value is BETTER than state value, but the difference IS NOT statistically significant.
- Improvement Needed = The community's value on this indicator is WORSE than the state value, but the difference IS NOT statistically significant.
- Reason for Concern = The community's value on this indicator is WORSE than the state value, and the difference IS statistically significant.
Why Is This Important?Pertussis or "whooping cough" is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacteria. Since vaccine-induced immunity to Bordetella pertussis is of limited duration, many adolescents and most adults have little or no residual immunity. Most reported pertussis cases among adolescents and adults are thought to occur because of this decline in protective immunity. Infants who are too young to have been fully vaccinated are at high risk of severe and potentially life-threatening illness from exposure to persons with active disease. Pertussis vaccine led to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the disease, from approximately 150 cases per 100,000 population pre-vaccine in the 1940s to about 1 case per 100,000 by 1980; however, pertussis disease rates have increased since 1980.
How Are We Doing?New Mexico has experienced pertussis rates of epidemic proportions since 2011. In 2012, New Mexico experience a three-fold increase in cases compared to 2011 and the U.S. experienced incidence not seen since 1959.
What Is Being Done?The New Mexico Department of Health provides quality improvement visits to Vaccines for Children providers to promote best practices for immunizations. Measuring and tracking coverage rates helps providers diagnose missed opportunities for immunizations. NMSIIS, the state on-line immunization registry, tracks immunizations received so that children can be recalled to be brought up-to-date for any needed shots. Learn more about evidence-based practices for childhood immunizations from the CDC Community Guide at http://www.thecommunityguide.org/vaccines/universally/index.html.
Evidence-based PracticesThe best way to prevent pertussis is to get vaccinated. In the US, the recommended pertussis vaccine for children is called DTaP. This is a safe and effective combination vaccine that protects children against three diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. For maximum protection against pertussis, children need five DTaP shots. The first three shots are given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The fourth shot is given between 15 and 18 months of age, and a fifth shot is given when a child enters school, at 4-6 years of age. Parents can also help protect infants by keeping them away as much as possible from anyone who has cold symptoms or is coughing. Vaccine protection for pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria can fade with time. There are boosters for adolescents and adults that contain tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (called Tdap). Pre-teens going to the doctor for their regular check-up at age 11 or 12 years should get a dose of Tdap. Adults who didn't get Tdap as a pre-teen or teen should get one dose of Tdap. In order to protect the newborn, pregnant women should get a Tdap during each pregnancy, ideally between 27 and 36 weeks of gestation. Infants younger than 1 year age who are too young to have been fully vaccinated have the highest rates of pertussis and are also at highest risk of severe illness. It is especially important that older children, adolescents, and adults in contact with these infants be vaccinated against pertussis.
NoteIncludes confirmed and probable cases.
Data SourcesNew Mexico Data Source, 2006 and later: New Mexico Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NM-EDSS), Infectious Disease Epidemiology Bureau, New Mexico Department of Health. Population Estimates: University of New Mexico, Geospatial and Population Studies (GPS) Program, http://gps.unm.edu/. U.S. Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS)
Measure Description for Pertussis
Definition: The number of probable and confirmed cases of Pertussis per 100,000 population (person-years at risk).
Numerator: Number of confirmed and probable pertussis cases that occurred during the measurement (time) period.
Denominator: Estimated total population at risk during the measurement (time) period.