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Complete Health Indicator Report of New Mexico Population - Poverty Among Children Under Age 5

Definition

The estimated number and percentage of children under age 5 living in households with income below the federal poverty level.

Numerator

Estimated number of children age 4 and under living in households whose income is below 100% of the federal poverty level as defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Poverty status is determined by comparing household income to poverty thresholds (income cutoffs). Thresholds vary by family size and number of children under 18 in the household, and are updated in January of each year. For instance, the poverty level for a family of four in 2015 was $24,250. The U.S. Poverty Guidelines may be found at the [http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/ Health and Human Services website].

Denominator

The estimated number of children age 4 and under in the population.

Data Interpretation Issues

The U.S. Poverty Guidelines are published in January of each year, and may be found online at http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/. Beginning with the year 2005, the U.S. Census Bureau switched from the Current Population Survey as a data source for these data to the American Community Survey. Population size estimates from the UNM Geospatial and Population Studies (GPS) program are considered more accurate for New Mexico. For this indicator report, the poverty percentage estimates from the 5-Year American Community Survey (ACS) were applied to the GPS population estimates to calculate counts and population size.

Why Is This Important?

Childhood poverty has especially harmful effects on healthy development and well-being, including developmental delays and infant mortality. Children born into poverty are less likely to have regular health care, proper nutrition, and opportunities for mental stimulation and enrichment. These factors are especially important in the very earliest years of life, because childrens' brain growth and skill development starts at early infancy. Studies document that children who live in low-income and under-educated families start to score lower on standardized developmental tests by as early as eighteen months of age. Such early setbacks are difficult to overcome. Due to their size, physiology, and behavior, young children are also disproportionately vulnerable to many health hazards. For example, the risk factors for childhood lead poisoning include living in a family with a poverty-level income. Studies have documented low blood-lead testing rates among children living in households with this risk factor. This measure identifies counties with higher percentages of children who therefore may be at increased risk for lead poisoning. When compared with lead-testing rates by county, populations with inadequate lead testing of young at-risk children may be identified in order to improve testing in these regions.

Healthy People Objective: EMC-1, (Developmental) Increase the proportion of children who are ready for school in all five domains of healthy development: physical development, social-emotional development, approaches to learning, language, and cognitive development

U.S. Target: Developmental

Other Objectives

CDC Environmental Public Health Tracking, Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (EPHT NCDM) New Mexico Early Learning Indicator

How Are We Doing?

New Mexico is one of the most impoverished states in the nation, ranking near the bottom of all states in the percent of its young children living in poverty (49th in both the 2013 and 2014 Annie E. Casey Foundation's KIDS COUNT Data Books).


Related Indicators

Related Relevant Population Characteristics Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Percentage of Children Under Age 5 Living in Poverty by Year, New Mexico and U.S., 2005-2017

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confidence limits

NM vs. U.S.YearPercentage of Children Under Age 5 in PovertyLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 46
New Mexico199538.9%33.8%44.0%54,547
New Mexico199635.3%30.7%40.0%48,993
New Mexico199730.0%25.0%35.0%41,024
New Mexico199833.8%28.1%40.0%45,578
New Mexico199928.7%23.1%34.0%37,495
New Mexico200026.7%22.5%31.0%34,641
New Mexico200130.0%26.3%34.0%39,189
New Mexico200230.4%26.1%35.0%40,213
New Mexico200329.5%25.0%34.0%38,728
New Mexico200427.8%23.8%32.0%37,307
New Mexico200529.8%27.8%32.0%39,040
New Mexico200629.2%27.4%31.0%40,718
New Mexico200729.7%27.8%32.0%42,245
New Mexico200827.9%25.9%30.0%40,670
New Mexico200929.4%27.0%32.0%43,951
New Mexico201032.0%29.9%34.0%45,529
New Mexico201134.0%31.5%37.0%48,612
New Mexico201232.9%30.9%35.0%46,398
New Mexico201333.2%30.9%36.0%45,301
New Mexico201431.5%29.1%34.0%42,581
New Mexico201530.3%28.3%32.0%40,192
New Mexico201631.4%28.4%34.0%39,733
New Mexico201728.4%25.8%31.0%35,257
United States199524.2%22.5%26.0%4,816,366
United States199623.4%21.6%25.0%4,582,977
United States199721.7%19.9%24.0%4,223,539
United States199820.8%19.0%23.0%4,038,584
United States199918.9%17.1%21.0%3,594,416
United States200018.7%17.0%20.0%3,583,098
United States200118.6%17.4%20.0%3,575,879
United States200219.0%17.8%20.0%3,727,193
United States200320.3%19.0%22.0%4,021,366
United States200420.5%19.3%22.0%4,123,715
United States200521.3%21.1%22.0%4,242,948
United States200621.0%20.8%21.0%4,211,345
United States200720.8%20.6%21.0%4,229,120
United States200821.2%20.8%22.0%4,369,698
United States200923.2%22.8%24.0%4,849,988
United States201025.0%24.8%25.0%4,961,524
United States201125.8%25.6%26.0%5,110,087
United States201225.6%25.4%26.0%5,014,970
United States201324.8%24.4%25.0%4,811,689
United States201423.9%23.7%24.0%4,658,187
United States201522.8%22.4%23.0%4,448,211
United States201621.3%21.1%22.0%4,156,949
United States201720.2%19.8%21.0%3,932,969

Data Notes

This measure of child poverty includes all children aged 0 to 4 who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. Poverty status is determined by comparing household income to poverty thresholds (income cutoffs). Thresholds vary by family size and number of children under 18 in the household. For instance, the poverty level for a family of four in 2019 is $25,750.   NM population values derive from UNM GPS population estimates. Percentages in poverty derive from U.S. Census SAIPE. 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the SAIPE 90% confidence intervals. Statewide totals and percentages will differ between estimates made using U.S. Census SAIPE and ACS values, due to rounding differences and dissimilar methodologies.

Data Sources

  • U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. http://factfinder.census.gov.
  • New Mexico Population Estimates: University of New Mexico, Geospatial and Population Studies (GPS) Program, http://gps.unm.edu/.
  • U.S. Census Bureau, Data Integration Division, Small Area Estimates Branch, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE). http://www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/


Percentage of Children Under Age 5 Living in Poverty by County, New Mexico, 2013-2017

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

This measure can identify communities where children may be at greater risk of exposure to lead. Limitations of this measure include the fact that children may be exposed to lead in a county other than their county of residence, while visiting family or attending day care in a neighboring county.
CountyPercentage of Children Under Age 5 in PovertyLower LimitUpper LimitNoteNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 35
Bernalillo28.9%26.5%31.3%11,73740,612
Catron72.5%35.0%100.0%81112
Chaves38.1%29.4%46.8%1,7684,641
Cibola38.8%30.4%47.2%7641,970
Colfax50.5%27.9%73.1%330653
Curry41.8%33.0%50.6%1,8014,310
De Baca0.0%0.0%40.2%Unstable095
Dona Ana43.0%37.9%48.1%6,43914,975
Eddy26.4%16.5%36.3%1,1464,343
Grant32.0%23.0%41.0%5051,579
Guadalupe42.3%12.7%71.9%Unstable92217
Harding8.3%0.0%22.0%Very Unstable332
Hidalgo39.9%16.6%63.2%114285
Lea24.4%17.9%30.9%1,4716,028
Lincoln8.9%0.6%17.2%Unstable85952
Los Alamos7.7%0.0%18.0%Very Unstable70914
Luna46.7%30.2%63.2%8791,882
McKinley45.0%39.4%50.6%2,7976,216
Mora36.0%0.0%77.0%Very Unstable83230
Otero29.1%18.9%39.3%1,2874,424
Quay41.8%18.0%65.6%201481
Rio Arriba32.6%24.3%40.9%8932,739
Roosevelt47.6%29.7%65.5%6401,345
Sandoval25.0%19.1%30.9%1,9677,869
San Juan27.9%23.7%32.1%2,6329,432
San Miguel60.1%46.7%73.5%8981,494
Santa Fe27.0%21.7%32.3%1,8506,853
Sierra48.6%26.7%70.5%261536
Socorro49.8%26.3%73.3%5431,091
Taos21.5%11.3%31.7%3381,571
Torrance42.5%28.6%56.4%342804
Union32.7%6.6%58.8%Unstable72219
Valencia35.7%27.5%43.9%1,5974,473
New Mexico27.2%26.0%28.4%136,010500,037
U.S.22.5%22.3%22.7%

Data Notes

This measure of child poverty includes all children aged 0 to 4 who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. Poverty status is determined by comparing household income to poverty thresholds (income cutoffs). Thresholds vary by family size and number of children under 18 in the household. For instance, the poverty level for a family of four in 2019 is $25,750.   The small-area percentages in poverty derive from the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates. 95% confidence intervals were calculated from the ACS 90% confidence intervals. The small-area and statewide population denominators derive from from the UNM GPS population estimates (using the mid-point year population estimates). The statewide and national percentages and the national population estimates derive from SAIPE estimates. Statewide totals and percentages will differ between estimates made using U.S. Census SAIPE and ACS values, due to rounding differences and dissimilar methodologies.

Data Sources

  • U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. http://factfinder.census.gov.
  • New Mexico Population Estimates: University of New Mexico, Geospatial and Population Studies (GPS) Program, http://gps.unm.edu/.
  • U.S. Census Bureau, Data Integration Division, Small Area Estimates Branch, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE). http://www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/

References and Community Resources

[http://www.aecf.org/resources/the-2014-kids-count-data-book/ The Annie E. Casey Foundation's 2014 KIDS COUNT Data Book] [http://www.nmvoices.org/ New Mexico Voices for Children] [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6302a6.htm Lead Screening and Prevalence of Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 1-2 Years (CDC report)]

More Resources and Links

Evidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:

Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:

Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.

Page Content Updated On 05/02/2019, Published on 05/02/2019
The information provided above is from the New Mexico Department of Health's NM-IBIS web site (http://ibis.health.state.nm.us). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: "Retrieved Sun, 16 June 2019 from New Mexico Department of Health, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.health.state.nm.us".

Content updated: Thu, 2 May 2019 16:28:37 MDT