DefinitionDiabetes prevalence is the estimated percentage of adult New Mexicans 18 years and older with diagnosed diabetes.
NumeratorNumber of adult (18 and older) New Mexico respondents who responded, "yes" (within the survey year) to the BRFSS question: "Has a doctor, nurse, or other health professional ever told you that you have diabetes?".
DenominatorNumber of adult (18 and older) New Mexico respondents who responded to the BRFSS within the survey year.
Data Interpretation IssuesData for this indicator report are from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an ongoing survey of adults regarding their health-related behaviors, health conditions, and preventive services. Data are collected in all 50 states, D.C., and U.S. territories. Responses have been weighted to reflect the New Mexico adult population by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic region, marital status, education level, home ownership and type of phone ownership.
The survey is conducted using scientific telephone survey methods for landline and cellular phones (with cellular since 2011). The landline phone portion of the survey excludes adults living in group quarters such as college dormitories, nursing homes, military barracks, and prisons. The cellular phone portion of the survey includes adults, in general, as well as adult students living in college dormitories but excludes other group quarters.
Beginning with 2011, the BRFSS updated its surveillance methods by adding calls to cell phones and changing its weighting methods. These changes improved the BRFSS' ability to take into account the increasing proportion of U.S. adults using only cellular telephones as well as to adjust survey data to improve the representativeness of the estimates generated from the survey. Results have been adjusted for the probability of selection of the respondent, and have been weighted to the adult population by age, gender, phone type, detailed race/ethnicity, renter/owner, education, marital status, and geographic area. Lastly and importantly, these changes mean that the data from years prior to 2011 are not directly comparable to data from 2011 and beyond. Please see the [https://ibis.health.state.nm.us/view/docs/Query/BRFSS/BRFSS_fact_sheet_Aug2012.pdf BRFSS Method Change Factsheet].
The "missing" and "don't know" responses were removed before calculating a percentage.
Why Is This Important?Diabetes and prediabetes are conditions on a continuum marked by blood glucose (blood sugar) levels that are higher than normal due to defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Insulin is a hormone needed to absorb and use glucose as fuel for the body's cells.
Diabetes can lower life expectancy and increase the risk of heart disease. It is the leading cause of kidney failure, lower limb amputation, and adult-onset blindness.
People with prediabetes have blood glucose levels higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. They're more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
Diabetes and its complications can often be prevented or delayed. People who are diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes need to learn about their condition and build the skills and confidence necessary to successfully take care of themselves, with the help of their health care team and community resources. About one-quarter of people with diabetes don't know they have it, and most people with prediabetes don't know they have it. Unfortunately, people who are undiagnosed can't take steps to manage their condition.
Data in this Profile are only about diagnosed diabetes prevalence.
Healthy People Objective: D-15, Increase the proportion of persons with diabetes whose condition has been diagnosedU.S. Target: 80.1 percent
Other ObjectivesThere are 16 major Healthy People 2020 objectives for diabetes.
Diabetes objectives D-5 to D-14 are about self-management and care behaviors among those with diagnosed diabetes.
How Are We Doing?In recent years, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has been about twice the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes twenty years ago. This is true in NM and US. In 1995, the US age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among adults was 4.6% and that of NM was 5.8%; by 2017, the age-adjusted prevalence estimates were 10.0% (2017 CDC BRFSS National Data Set) and 9.8%, respectively.
Since 2011, the NM age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has remained relatively stable between 9.6% and 10.7%, with no statistically significant differences across the years 2011 through 2017.
Diagnosed diabetes is associated with age. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is higher in older age groups. Within each age group, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes by gender with the exception of adults age 65-74. In this age group, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was statistically significantly higher among males than among females.
The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was very low in the youngest age groups and greatest in the older age groups, with over twenty percent of women and twenty-five percent of men age 65 or older having been diagnosed.
The aging of the state's population helps drive the increasing prevalence of diabetes. In New Mexico, the population of individuals 55 and older has grown from 27% of all adults in 1990 to 39% of all adults in 2017, a 44% increase.
Prevalence by race/ethnicity: Disparities by race/ethnicity remain. The American Indian/Alaska Native rate was statistically significantly higher than that of Hispanic and white adults, and, in fact, was three times the rate of white adults. The Hispanic rate was statistically significantly higher than the white rate, and was nearly twice the white rate. While the rate for Black/African American and Asian/NHOPI were second highest and second lowest, respectively, small sample size precluded effective comparison of these rates to those of other groups, even using three years of combined data.
Prevalence by race/ethnicity and sex: Within each Race/Ethnic group, the rates for males and females were statistically similar with the exception of Asian/Pacific Islander adults. In this group, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was statistically significantly higher in males than females.
Among males, the American Indian rate was nearly 3 times the White rate and the Hispanic rate was nearly twice the White rate. The Asian/NHOPI, Black/African American, and Hispanic rates were similar.
Among females, the highest rate was among Black/African American and American Indian women, these rates being 3.5 and 2.5 times the White rate. The Hispanic rate was two times the White rate.
Household Income: Income and wealth influence the health of communities and individuals. Diabetes prevalence was statistically significantly higher among the two lowest income categories than the three higher income categories.
The rate of diagnosed diabetes in the lowest income category was nearly three times that of the highest income category.
County rates: In 2015-2017, three county rates were statistically significantly lower than the statewide age-adjusted prevalence rate of 10.4%: Los Alamos, Quay, and Taos. The rates of six counties were statistically significantly higher than that of the state: Cibola, Dona Ana, McKinley, San Juan, Socorro, and Union. The rates for De Baca, Guadalupe, Harding, and Hidalgo counties were statistically highly unreliable, and so are not presented.
Urban and Rural: The rates for Rural and Mixed Urban/Rural areas were statistically significantly higher than that of the Metro area.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?Generally, both New Mexico and the U.S. prevalence have remained similar since the mid-1990s. The graph shows trends of increasing prevalence since 2000 for NM and the US. Although the recent New Mexico rates appear to be slightly higher, the NM and US rates are statistically similar.
What Is Being Done?The NM Department of Health Diabetes Prevention and Control Program (DPCP) works with health care providers and community partners, agencies and coalitions to provide multiple diabetes prevention and management services and programs. Services and programs include: professional development trainings and resources for diabetes prevention and management; the National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP), a proven community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention to prevent or delay diabetes in persons at high risk; community resources to help people manage their diabetes through skill building, such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management and Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs; Kitchen Creations cooking schools; and health system disease management interventions that improve blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
The DPCP provides education, information, and resources about prediabetes and diabetes, particularly to health care providers, to increase screening, testing and referral to prevention and management programs. This includes a centralized referral and data system that helps providers easily make referrals to the above programs. DPCP?s partners support built environment improvements so people at risk for or with diabetes can be physically active and initiatives that increase access to healthy foods. Both are essential components of effective population-based diabetes prevention and control. The DPCP consults with populations that are disproportionately affected by diabetes and/or those that serve them to develop programs and services that are culturally appropriate for these populations.
Evidence-based PracticesDiabetes and its complications can be prevented, delayed and/or managed through participation in evidence-based programs, including the National Diabetes Prevention Program or NDPP (provided in a clinical, community, or web-based setting), the Diabetes Self-Management Education Program or DSMEP (provided in a community or web-based setting), and Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support programs or DSME/S (usually provided in a clinical setting). Improving the quality of clinical care for people with and at risk for diabetes is also an evidence-based practice. The following DPCP activities are in alignment with these accepted programs and practices:
1. Increase use of the NDPP to prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes among people at high risk by raising awareness about prediabetes and the NDPP, increasing delivery sites, facilitating the screening and referral process, and working to obtain health insurance coverage (including Medicaid) for the program.
2. Increase access to sustainable self-management education and support services (DSMEP and DSME/S) to improve control of A1C, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and to promote tobacco cessation, by increasing delivery sites, facilitating the referral process, and working to obtain health insurance coverage (including Medicaid) for the programs.
3. Implement evidence-based worksite programs and policies that help people prevent or manage diabetes and related chronic conditions, promote tobacco cessation, and help employees improve control of their A1C, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
4. Improve health outcomes for people with and at risk for diabetes by supporting health care organizations to improve quality of care through use of the Planned Care Model, Patient Centered Medical Home, and Electronic Health Record. Within these organizations, support policy and protocol implementation that institutionalize and help sustain quality care improvements.
5. Promote the sustainability of Community Health Workers (CHWs) involved in providing diabetes prevention and management services.