Risk FactorsThe well-documented risk factors for AMI include diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and cigarette smoking. Increasingly, investigators both in the United States and abroad have shown significant relationships between air pollutants and increased risk of AMI and other forms of CHD. Studies have often focused on persons aged >65 years. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution and hospitalizations for AMI and other forms of heart disease. Models have demonstrated increases in AMI hospitalization rate in relation to fine particles (PM2.5), particularly in sensitive subpopulations such as the elderly, patients with pre-existing heart disease, and particularly persons who are survivors of MI or persons with COPD. An increase of 10 ug/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 4.5% elevation in risk of acute ischemic coronary events (unstable angina and AMI) (95% [95% CI, 1.1-8.0]). Mortality statistics have been linked for a 16-year period to chronic exposure of multiple air pollutants in 500,000 adults residing throughout the United States. Each 10 ug/m3 in annual PM2.5 was related to a 12% increased mortality risk.
Related Risk Factors Indicators: