Health Indicator Report of Cardiovascular Disease - Heart Disease Deaths
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in New Mexico and accounts for over 20% of all deaths.
Heart Disease Deaths per 100,000 Population by County, New Mexico, 2009-2013
Quartile Map of Heart Disease Deaths by County, New Mexico 2007-2011
A "Quartile" map assigns areas to four groups. Each group includes the SAME NUMBER of areas. Group membership and map color are based on the rank order of area rates, from the lowest rate to the highest. The bottom 25% (bottom quartile) of areas has the lowest rates, the next 25% has the second lowest rates, the next 25% has the second highest rates and the top 25% of areas has the highest rates. Areas with the darkest color have the highest rates. Percentile maps such as this assign areas to different groups regardless of how close the rates actually are. In other words, just because two areas are in different groups doesn't necessarily mean that their rates are significantly different. For small area background information and reference maps, please visit: http://ibis.health.state.nm.us/resources/SmallAreaMethods.html
NotesHeart disease mortality is defined as circulatory, Heart disease (ICD10: I00-I09, I11, I13, I20-I51). Rates are calculated using July 23, 2013 population estimates. Data have been directly age-adjusted to the U.S. 2000 standard population.
*This rate is statistically unstable (RSE >0.30), and may fluctuate widely across time periods due to random variation (chance).
- New Mexico Death Data: Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), New Mexico Department of Health.
- Population Data Source: Geospatial and Population Studies Program, University of New Mexico. http://bber.unm.edu/bber_research_demPop.html.
DefinitionDiseases of the heart includes a variety of diseases and conditions, such as coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure.
NumeratorNumber of heart disease deaths
DenominatorNew Mexico Population
How Are We Doing?Generally, overall heart disease death rates have been decreasing for decades. However, heart disease and cancer deaths remain the top two leading causes of death in NM and the US.
Age and Sex. As is typical with chronic diseases, death rates increased as age increased, with a steep increase in the oldest age group (85+ years). The 2013 male rates were higher than female rates in each age group. Specifically, male rates were 30% higher (within the 85+ group) to three times higher (within the 45-55 group) than female rates. Male deaths were 55% of all 2013 heart disease deaths.
Race/Ethnicity: The 2009-2013 Black/African American and White rates were statistically similar and higher than all rates in this period. Other rates in order from low to high are: Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native and Hispanic. White deaths comprised 63%, Hispanic 29%, American Indian 4.5%, Black 1.8% and Asians 0.5% of 16,304 NM heart disease deaths within this five-year period.
County: 2011-2013 rates for De Baca, Luna, Sierra, Quay, Lea, Eddy, Roosevelt, Chaves and Curry counties were higher than the NM rate (149 deaths per 100,000 persons). Conversely, Santa Fe, Dona Ana, Los Alamos and Taos county rates were lower than the state rate. Unsurprisingly, 30.6% of all heart disease deaths were in Bernalillo County (our most populous county), followed by 8% in Dona Ana County and 6.3% in Santa Fe County.
Urban and Rural: NM counties were designated into four groups of urbanicity and rurality, using the National Center for Health Statistics classification scheme. For 2012-2013, the Rural rate and the Mixed Urban-Rural rate were statistically similar and were the highest heart disease death rates. The Small Metropolitan rate is the lowest rate, while the Metropolitan rate is in the middle.
How Do We Compare With the U.S.?US and NM: NM rates were consistently lower than US rates. Rates continue to decrease in both US and NM. From 1999 to 2013, NM rates decreased 29% (from 208 to 151 deaths per 100,000 persons); the US rates decreased 36% from 1999 to 2012. Over these 15 years, an average 3253 heart disease deaths occurred annually in NM.
Rates for the nation has been decreasing since the 1950s. Decreases in mean blood pressure levels, mean blood cholesterol levels and smoking, as well as improvements in medical care have contributed to this decline in death rates. Changes in the US diet may have contributed to the decreases in mean blood pressure and blood cholesterol. However, heart disease and stroke remain leading causes of disability and death. (Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Decline in Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke -- United States, 1900-1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) ]
Evidence-based PracticesEvidence-based community health improvement ideas and interventions may be found at the following sites:
? The Guide to Community Preventive Services
? Health Indicators Warehouse
? County Health Rankings
? Healthy People 2020 Website
Heart Disease and its complications can be prevented and managed through these strategies:
1. Clinical decision-support systems designed to assist healthcare providers in implementing clinical guidelines at the point of care.
2. Reducing out-of-pocket costs (ROPC) for patients with high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
3. Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control.
CDC recommends specific major activities to implement these three effective strategies.
1) Clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) designed to assist healthcare providers in implementing clinical guidelines at the point of care.
- Implementation of CDSS at clinics and sites that provide healthcare services along with providing technical assistance on proper use of these systems.
- CDSS for cardiovascular disease prevention (CVD) include one or more of the following:
o Reminders for overdue CVD preventive services including screening for risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol
o Assessments of patients' risk for developing CVD based on their medical history, symptoms, and clinical test results
o Recommendations for evidence-based treatments to prevent CVD, including intensification of treatment
o Recommendations for health behavior changes to discuss with patients such as quitting smoking, increasing physical activity, and reducing excessive salt intake
o Alerts when indicators for CVD risk factors are not at goal
2) Reducing out-of-pocket costs (ROPC) for patients with high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
- Reducing out-of-pocket costs involves program and policy changes that make cardiovascular disease preventive services more affordable. These services include:
o Behavioral counseling (e.g. nutrition counseling)
o Behavioral support (e.g. community-based weight management programs, gym membership)
- Encouraging the delivery of preventive services in clinical and non-clinical settings (e.g. worksite, community).
- Promoting interventions that enhance patient-provider interaction such as team-based care, medication counseling, and patient education.
- Increasing awareness of covered services to providers and to patients with high blood pressure and high cholesterol using targeted messages.
- Work with diabetes management and tobacco cessation programs to coordinate coverage for blood pressure and cholesterol management.
3) Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control.
- Team-based care to improve blood pressure control is a health systems-level, organizational intervention that incorporates a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of hypertension care for patients.
- Provide technical assistance to facilitate communication and coordination of care support among various team members including the patient, the patient?s primary care provider, nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, social workers, and community health workers.
- Enhance the use of evidence-based guidelines by team members.
- Actively engage patients and populations at risk in their own care by providing educational materials, medication adherence support, and tools and resources for self-management (including health behavior change).
Additional indicator data by state and county may be found on these Websites:
? Health Indicators Warehouse
? County Health Rankings
? Kaiser Family Foundation's StateHealthFacts.org
? CDC WONDER's DATA2010, the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.
For an on-line medical dictionary, click on this Dictionary link.
Page Content Updated On 01/05/2015, Published on 03/06/2015