Neighborhood and Built Environment
Neighborhood and built environments have health impacts for the people who live there. Aspects of neighborhood environments include walkability, land use mix and urbanity, retail, recreational areas, restaurants, fast food outlets, cultural and education institutions, and pollution, such as from traffic or waste sites. HealthyPeople2020 classifies neighborhood and built environment factors into these four categories:
- Access to Healthy Foods
- Quality of Housing
- Crime and Violence
- Environmental Conditions
A neighborhood's built environment can have an influence on residents' health. For example,
- The more grocery stores in close proximity to where people live, the lower their blood pressure and body mass index tended to be. A fast food outlet in close proximity to where people live was linked to higher body mass index.
- Neighborhood walkability was associated with physical activity and obesity.
- Neighborhood presence of hazardous waste facilities enhanced negative effects of stress.
- Neighborhoods with more older homes have a higher risk of childhood lead exposure.
- Total Occupied Housing Units
- Total Vacant Housing Units
- Percentage of Total Housing Units Single, Detached
- Percentage of Total Housing Units Mobile Homes
- Percentage of Total Housing Units Built Before 1950
- Percentage of Total Housing Units Built Before 1980
- Occupied Units, Less than One Occupant per Room
- Occupied Units, More than 1.5 Occupants per Room
- Owner Occupied Housing Units
- Owner Occupied Units Median Value
- Renter Occupied Housing Units
- Renter Occupied Units Median Gross Rent
- Renter Occupied GRAPI (Gross Rent as a Percent of Income) 35% or More